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CNIO Publications, Year 2017

Nabil Djouder, head of the Growth Factors, Nutrients and Cancer Group at the CNIO

Cell Metabolism

Researchers suggest specific diets for preventing colorectal cancer in high-risk groups

Madrid, 21 December, 2017

Colorectal cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumour in Spain. It is known that factors such as diet and intestinal inflammation play an important role in its occurrence, but direct links between nutrients, inflammation and colorectal cancer are poorly described. Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have discovered that the amount of protein in our diet may be an important factor in the prevention of colorectal cancer in different risk groups. People already...

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Histology of a glioblastoma induced by the silencing of RanBP6./ CNIO

Nature Communications

Novel mechanism that protects from glioblastoma identified

Madrid, 18 December, 2017

A group of researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have identified a protein called RanBP6 as a new regulator of EGFR. In a paper published in Nature Communications they show how silencing of RanBP6 promoted glioma growth, by upregulating EGFR expression. Moreover, reconstitution of RanBP6 in a mouse xenograft model leads to reduction in tumor growth. Authors state that these findings might have “important clinical implications”.Malignant brain tumors represent about...

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The first effective therapy against glioblastoma by attacking telomeres

Cancer Cell

The first effective therapy against glioblastoma by attacking telomeres

Madrid, 13 November, 2017

The Telomere and Telomerase Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has shown that it is possible to block the growth of human and murine glioblastoma in mouse models by blocking the TRF1 protein; an essential component of the telomere-protective complex known as shelterin. The study, published in Cancer Cell, describes a new and promising way to combat this type of brain tumour, considered one of the most lethal and difficult to treat, by attacking its ability to...

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The PI3K pathway and TRF1, essentialfor the integrity of telomeres, are functionally connected.

Nature Communications

Two important signalling pathways in cancer and ageing are connected for the first time

Madrid, 2 November, 2017

The structure of proteins that protect telomeres (shelterin proteins, from “protective shield”) are promising targets to combat cancer but to date there has been no drug or effective form for attacking them. In the absence of drugs that destroy telomeres, cancer retains one of its most terrible properties, which is the ability of its cells to perpetually divide. Two years ago, the group led by Maria A. Blasco at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) hit upon several compounds that...

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Genes and Development

'Capicua’ gene plays a key role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Madrid, 21 September, 2017

Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have discovered a genetic alteration that is directly involved in at least 10% of cases of one of the most common cancers in children, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In a paper published this week in the printed edition of Genes and Development, the scientists explain how the mice in which a specific gene, known as Capicua, has been inactivated, inevitably develop this type of leukaemia. They have also discovered...

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PNAS

A way to stabilize haploidy in animal cells

Madrid, 14 August, 2017

The emergence, in recent years, of the first mammalian haploid cell lines has raised great expectations in the scientific community. Despite their potential, these cultures present some issues that make their use complicated because Haploidy is unstable and can be lost quickly. The Genomic Instability Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has offered an explanation of this phenomenon and proposes a way to overcome it. Their work has been published this week in the...

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Nucleic Acids Research

New computational method enhances our understanding of the human epigenome

Madrid, 3 August, 2017

A team of scientists from different institutions such as the BSC, the Newcastle University and the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has developed a method to detect the epigenome areas where the changes that give rise to cellular diversity originate. These changes are also related to the cancer origin and development. In the study, which has been published in Nucleic Acids Research, they have developed a computational method that has been applied in hematopoiesis, the process of...

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Nature

A Braf kinase-inactive mutant induces lung adenocarcinoma

Madrid, 2 August, 2017

The initiating oncogenic event in almost half of human lung adenocarcinomas is still unknown, a fact that complicates the development of selective targeted therapies. Yet these tumours harbour a number of alterations without obvious oncogenic function including BRAF-inactivating mutations. Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have demonstrated that the expression of an endogenous Braf (D631A) kinase-inactive isoform in mice (corresponding to the human BRAF(D594A)...

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Clinical Cancer Research

New mutations related to hereditary neuroendocrine tumours

Madrid, 20 July, 2017

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a strong hereditary component. Half the genes whose alterations confer hereditary susceptibility to develop this condition code for enzymes involved in the Krebs cycle, a metabolic route involved in cellular respiration. A study by the Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) published in the journal Clinical Cancer Research identifies new genes associated with this cycle...

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Nature Medicine

CNIO scientists link new cancer treatments to cardiovascular alterations

Madrid, 10 July, 2017

Plk1 inhibitors have recently been acknowledged as an "Innovative Therapy for leukaemia" by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, a study published in Nature Medicine by researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) suggests that prolonged use of these inhibitors can not only lead to hypertension issues but also to the rupturing of blood vessels and severe cardiovascular problems.The idea behind personalised medicine is knowing the function of each one of our...

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

A new system to identify senescent cells 'in vivo' has been developed

Madrid, 5 July, 2017

Researchers from the the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), the Centre for Biomedical Research in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) and Cambridge University have developed a new system that allows the detection of senescent cells in vivo without damaging tissue. Their paper has been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.The main objective of cellular senescence is to avoid the proliferation...

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Scientific Reports

New data on the protective effects of Alzheimer's on cancer

Madrid, 3 July, 2017

Patients with Alzheimer's disease have a higher risk of developing glioblastoma and a lower risk of lung cancer. A paper published in Scientific Reports by researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), headed by Alfonso Valencia, a researcher affiliated to the CNIO and to the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre (BSC), describes the biological processes that underlie this comorbidity.  The increase in life expectancy has resulted in many people developing multiple...

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Nature

CNIO researchers visualize early melanoma metastasis and identify new targets for treatment

Madrid, 28 June, 2017

Early detection is particularly important in cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive type of skin cancer: with a thickness of little more than one millimetre, the tumour may begin to spread, sending its cells to colonise other organs. When this occurs, the prognosis is usually poor. Treatments have improved considerably, particularly regarding immunotherapy, but melanoma mortality remains very high. One of the important questions to be answered is how melanomas acquire this inherent potential...

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Chemical Reviews

Spanish researchers review the state-of-the-art text mining technologies for chemistry

Madrid, 21 June, 2017

In a recent Chemical Reviews article, the Biological Text Mining Unit at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) together with researchers at the Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), of the University of Navarra, in Pamplona, and the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre (BSC-CNS) have published the first exhaustive revision of the state-of-the-art methodologies underlying chemical search engines, named entity recognition and text mining systems. The rapidly growing field of...

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Nucleic Acids Research

CNIO presents an online tool to extract drug toxicity information from text

Madrid, 31 May, 2017

The Biological Text Mining Unit presents in a recent Nucleic Acids Research paper the LimTox online software tool developed at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO). This resource integrates state-of-the-art in text mining, machine learning and language technology methods in order to empower the underlying biomedical semantic search engine. LimTox allows retrieval and ranking of chemical and biological entities of interest, interactions between them, visualization of chemical...

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Stem Cell Reports

A protein, a 'molecular staple' and CRISPR to generate an Ewing sarcoma model

Madrid, 9 May, 2017

A team from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has optimized a system capable of generating a cellular model of Ewing sarcoma. The technique, based on CRISPR and described in the pages of Stem Cell Reports, makes it possible to generate cellular models to analyse the mechanisms underlying the origin and progression of this and other diseases, as well as the search for new treatments.CRISPR, the famous genomic editing technique, not only serves to cure diseases but also to...

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Cell Reports

Excessive DNA replication and its potential use against cancer

Madrid, 3 May, 2017

DNA over-replication is a phenomenon that can have devastating consequences for proliferating cells. When parts of the genome are duplicated more than once, cells suffer from ‘genomic instability’ (alterations to the structure, composition and/or number of chromosomes), and this process gives rise to aberrant cells as those detected in many carcinomas. The cooperation of two proteins called CDC6 and CDT1 is essential for normal DNA replication but when they are not properly regulated, the...

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Cell Reports

Liver progenitor cells are involved in the development of hepatic tumours

Madrid, 18 April, 2017

The malignant transformation of hepatocytes is the origin of most hepatocellular carcinomas, an aggressive type of liver cancer with high mortality rates. But these cells do not act alone. Research conducted by scientists at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) reveals how hepatocytes "recruit" and "instruct" liver progenitor cells to contribute to the hepatic lesions."The cellular origin of liver cancer, as well as the origin of tumour heterogeneity, are not clear yet and may be...

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The Journal of Experimental Medicine

A novel molecular link between cholesterol, inflammation and liver cancer

Madrid, 29 March, 2017

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly disease with no effective cure that develops in the context of liver diseases associated with chronic inflammation. A recent research article published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine describes how important a protein called c-Fos is for HCC development, because it affects cholesterol homeostasis in hepatocytes, the main cells of the liver. Using genetically modified mouse models (GEMMs), Erwin Wagner, director of the Cancer Cell Biology...

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Nature Reviews

Tighten the grip on metastasis

Madrid, 17 March, 2017

Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death and its appearance remains a phenomenon that is difficult to predict and manage. We now know that, prior to the arrival of the cancer cells, tumours prepare the ground in the organ that they will later colonise. These areas with ideal conditions for the onset of metastasis are called pre-metastatic niches and targeting them will help improve patient survival. These questions are the subject of a review paper published in Nature Reviews by an...

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Stem Cell Reports

'In vivo’ reprogramming induces signs of telomere rejuvenation

Madrid, 2 February, 2017

During the 'in vivo’ reprogramming process, cellular telomeres are extended due to an increase in endogenous telomerase. This is the main conclusion of a paper published in 'Stem Cell Reports' by a team from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO). Their observations show, for the first time, that the reprogramming of living tissue results in telomerase activation and telomere elongation; thus reversing one of the hallmarks of aging: ‘the presence of short telomeres’. "We have...

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