Home > About Us > CNIO Publications, Year 2014

CNIO Publications, Year 2014

Plos Biology

Hair growth activated by modifying immune cells

Madrid, 23 December, 2014

How to restore hair loss is a task not undertaken exclusively by beauty practitioners. The discovery, now published by a group from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), reveals a novel angle to spur hair follicle growth. This also adds new knowledge to a broader problem: how to regenerate tissues in an adult organism, especially the skin.The group has discovered an unexpected connection—a link between the body’s defense system and skin regeneration. According to the authors of...

Read more...

Nature Communications

Heart attacks treated with new gene therapy based on telomerase enzyme

Madrid, 18 December, 2014

The enzyme telomerase repairs cell damage produced by ageing, and has been used successfully in therapies to lengthen the life of mice. Now it has been observed that it could also be used to cure illnesses related to the ageing process. Researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have for the first time treated myocardial infarction with telomerase by designing a very innovative strategy: a gene therapy that reactivates the telomerase gene only in the heart of adult mice,...

Read more...

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology

DNA double-strand break process visualised for the first time

Madrid, 8 December, 2014

Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), led by Guillermo Montoya, have developed a method for producing biological crystals that has allowed scientists to observe —for the first time— DNA double chain breaks. They have also created a computer simulation that makes this process, which lasts in the order of millionths of a second, visible to the human eye. The study is published today by the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology.“We knew that enzymes, or...

Read more...

Cancer Cell

A derivative of vitamin B3 prevents liver cancer in mice

Madrid, 20 November, 2014

Liver cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world, and with the worst prognosis. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), in 2012, 745,000 deaths were registered worldwide due to this cause, a figure only surpassed by lung cancer. The most aggressive and frequent form of liver cancer is hepato- cellular carcinoma (HCC); little is known about it and there are relatively few treatment options.Researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), have produced...

Read more...

European Urology

Conventional therapies are less efficient in prostate cancer patients carrying BRCA mutations

Madrid, 14 November, 2014

Prostate cancer patients carrying inherited mutations in the BRCA genes respond less well to conventional treatment, including surgery and/or radiotherapy - and they also have a lower survival rate than those who are non-carriers of these genetic mutations. Data from the study, which has been published in the journal European Urology, points to the need for new clinical trials aimed at targeting these mutations in order to tailor treatment for these patients. The study has been led by...

Read more...
Logo CNIO

Nature Medicine

The efficacy of FOLFIRI in a colorectal cancer subtype under question

Madrid, 6 November, 2014

The current classification system for colorectal cancer, which is based on genetic expression profiles, cannot be used to predict drug responses to FOLFIRI. This is the conclusion reached by a team from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), formed by members from the Gastrointestinal Cancer Clinical Research Unit and the Structural Computational Biology Group. The study, published today in the journal Nature Medicine, will assist oncologists in making better-informed decisions...

Read more...

PNAS

CNIO researchers create a mouse model that reproduces Noonan syndrome

Madrid, 5 November, 2014

Noonan syndrome is a rare disease that is characterised by a set of pathologies, including heart, facial and skeletal alterations, pulmonary stenosis, short stature, and a greater incidence of haematological problems (mainly juvenile myeloid leukaemia, or childhood leukaemia). There is an estimated incidence of 1 case for every 1,000–2,500 births, and calculations show some 20,000–40,000 people suffer from the disease in Spain. From a genetic point of view, this syndrome is associated to...

Read more...
Logo CNIO

Blood

Two oncogenes are associated with the agressiveness and incidence of leukaemia in mice

Madrid, 10 October, 2014

Proteins regulating cell division determine tumour growth. Ongoing clinical trials are currently studying inhibitors for two of these proteins, Cdk4 and Cdk6, targeting several types of cancer, such as breast cancer, lung cancer and leukaemia. The Cell Division and Cancer Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), led by Marcos Malumbres, has discovered the molecular mechanism behind the interaction of these proteins. Researchers also demonstrated in mice that the simultaneous...

Read more...
Logo CNIO

Nature Communications

A molecular mechanism involved in cellular proliferation characterised

Madrid, 29 September, 2014

Researchers from Guillermo Montoya’s team at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), in collaboration with Isabelle Vernos’ Group from the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), have uncovered the molecular interaction between TACC3 and chTOG, key proteins in forming the internal cellular framework that enables and sustains cell division. Published today in Nature Communications, the observations may help to optimise current oncological therapies specifically designed to fight against...

Read more...

Nature Methods

Experts from CNIO discover shining cells responsible for developing tumours

Madrid, 28 September, 2014

Tumours are mosaics of cells that are morphologically and molecularly very different. In this cellular heterogeneity, it is calculated that only 1-2% of the tumour mass is made up of cancer stem cells, which over the past years have been suggested to be responsible for the origin of cancer and for the resistance to conventional chemical therapies. This small percentage of cancer stem cells in a solid tumour makes it difficult to isolate and analyse them, as well as to study the origin of drug...

Read more...
Logo CNIO

British Journal of Cancer

First clinical trial on HER-2-negative breast cancer with nintedanib

Madrid, 9 September, 2014

The experimental drug nintedanib, combined with standard chemotherapy with paclitaxel, causes a total remission of tumours in 50% of patients suffering from early HER-2- negative breast cancer, the most common type of breast cancer. These are the conclusions of the Phase I Clinical Trial, organised by the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) and carried out by CNIO´s Breast Cancer Clinical Research Unit. The study has been published today in the printed edition of the British Journal...

Read more...

Nature Communications

The genomic origin of telomere protectors, discovered

Madrid, 3 September, 2014

RNA is one of the most primitive molecules associated with life that has awakened most interest over the last decade; a sister molecule to cellular DNA from which it originates via a process called transcription. Seven years ago, the groups of María Blasco at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Spain, and Joachim Lingner in Switzerland discovered that the DNA regions that contained telomeres, despite their compact and hard-to-access structure, generated RNAs that they christened...

Read more...

Cell Metabolism

One third of cancer patients are killed by a ‘fat- burning’ process termed cachexia

Madrid, 17 July, 2014

Most cancer researchers are working on the biology of the tumour. However, Michele Petruzzelli, a member of Erwin Wagner’s group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), has been looking for ways to attack the disease indirectly. He focused on the effects of tumours on the rest of the body, and not on the tumour itself. His work on the body’s response to a tumour has uncovered that cachexia—the extreme thinness and weakness eventually being the real cause of death in one third of...

Read more...

Cell Reports

CNIO researchers discover a gene that links stem cells, ageing and cancer

Madrid, 17 July, 2014

An organism is healthy thanks to a good maintenance system: the normal functioning of organs and environmental exposure cause damage to tissues, which need to be continuously repaired. This process is not yet well understood, but it is known that stem cells in the organs play a key role, and that when repair fails, the organism ages more quickly. Researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have “discovered one of the key genes that make up the maintenance...

Read more...
Logo CNIO

Nature Reviews

Manuel Serrano proposes a new vision of a process wrongly associated with ageing

Madrid, 11 July, 2014

For the Spanish Royal Academy, senescent is he who “begins to age”. But laboratory biology results are contradicting the dictionary: not only is senescence not a synonym of ageing, it is also not intrinsically negative for the organism. Cellular senescence is such a badly named physiological process that those who do research in this area think it needs another name. That is the case of Manuel Serrano, from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), one of the world’s leading experts...

Read more...

Acta Crystallographica

New technology to redirect proteins towards specific areas of the genome

Madrid, 10 July, 2014

The Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Macromolecular Crystallography Group has managed to reprogramme the binding of a protein called BuD to DNA in order to redirect it towards specific DNA regions. Guillermo Montoya, the researcher who led the study, says the discovery: “will allow us to modify and edit the instructions contained in the genome to treat genetic diseases or to develop genetically-modified organisms.” The study is published in the journal Acta Crystallographica,...

Read more...

Nature Communications

The pluripotency factor NANOG is also active in adult organisms

Madrid, 9 July, 2014

Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have discovered that NANOG, an essential gene for embryonic stem cells, also regulates cell division in stratified epithelia—those that form part of the epidermis of the skin or cover the oesophagus or the vagina—in adult organisms. According to the conclusions of the study, published in the journal Nature Communications, this factor could also play a role in the formation of tumours derived from stratified epithelia of the...

Read more...
Logo CNIO

Human Molecular Genetics

CNIO group reduces the size of the human genome to 19,000 genes

Madrid, 3 July, 2014

How nutrients are metabolised and how neurons communicate in the brain are just some of the messages coded by the 3 billion letters that make up the human genome. The detection and characterisation of the genes present in this mass of information is a complex task that has been a source of ongoing debate since the first systematic attempts by the Human Genome Project more than ten years ago.A study led by Alfonso Valencia, Vice-Director of Basic Research at the Spanish National Cancer Research...

Read more...

Cancer Cell

More than 40 melanoma-specific genes that determine aggressiveness discovered

Madrid, 26 June, 2014

Researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) have discovered more than 40 genes that predict the level of aggressiveness of melanoma and that distinguish it from other cancers with a poor prognosis. The discovery, published in Cancer Cell, will help to identify unique aspects of melanoma that could contribute to determine the risk of developing metastasis in patients with this disease. This study is relevant because it explains why a drug, also described by CNIO, is being...

Read more...

Nature Reviews Cancer

CNIO researcher Ana Losada revises the role of cohesin in cancer

Madrid, 20 June, 2014

Massive sequencing of cancer genomes brings to light new genes every day that could be involved in the process of tumour formation. A good example of this is cohesin, a ring-shaped protein complex that embraces DNA to control cell division. Just a few months ago, and after several studies in the same direction, the sequencing of thousands of tumour samples identified the STAG2 gene— whose product forms part of cohesin—as one of the most frequently mutated genes in several types of cancer such...

Read more...

Nature Communications

Chromosomal translocations associated with certain cancer types reproduced in human cells

Madrid, 3 June, 2014

Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) and the Spanish National Cardiovascular Research Centre (CNIC) have been able to reproduce, for the first time in human cells, chromosomal translocations associated with two types of cancer: acute myeloid leukaemia and Ewing’s sarcoma. The discovery, published today in the journal Nature Communications, opens the door to the development of new therapeutic targets to fight these types of cancer.The study was carried out by Sandra...

Read more...

Clinical Cancer Research

New strategy to personalize cancer therapies

Madrid, 29 April, 2014

Tumour cells can accumulate hundreds or even thousands of DNA mutations which induce the growth and spread of cancer. The number and pattern of mutations differs according to the type of tumour, even among those that are classified as part of the same type of tumours. This complexity, which researchers were not aware of just a few years ago, calls for new tools to filter relevant genetic information for the implementation and development of personalised therapies targeted at specific...

Read more...

Stem Cell Reports

A protein required for integrity of induced pluripotent stem cells

Madrid, 17 April, 2014

Cell reprogramming converts specialised cells — such as nerve cells or skin cells — towards an embryonic stem cell state. This reversal in the evolutionary development of cells also requires a reversal in the biology of telomeres, the structures that protect the ends of chromosomes; whilst under normal conditions telomeres shorten over time, during cell reprogramming they follow the opposite strategy and increase in length.A study published today in the journal Stem Cell Reports, from the Cell...

Read more...

PLOS Genetics

Two new genes that modulate risk of breast and ovarian cancer

Madrid, 4 April, 2014

Today we know that women carrying BCRA1 and BCRA2 gene mutations have a 43%–88% risk of developing from breast cancer before the age of 70. Taking critical decisions such as opting for preventive surgery when the risk bracket is so wide is not easy. Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) researchers are conducting a study that will contribute towards giving every woman far more precise data about her personal risk of suffering from cancer.The paper has been authored by 200 researchers...

Read more...

Immunity | Science Translational Medicine

Two new strategies for the treatment of psoriasis

Madrid, 26 February, 2014

Almost ten years ago, the group led by Erwin Wagner, currently at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), developed genetically modified mice showing symptoms very reminiscent to psoriasis. After publishing this discovery in Nature, the researchers decided to use this mouse model to study the underlying molecular pathways involved in disease development, and to look for innovative and efficient therapies. Now the group has discovered two possible novel treatments, based on existing...

Read more...

PLOS Genetics

Nobel findings in lower cancer incidence in patients with CNS disease

Madrid, 20 February, 2014

Epidemiological studies demonstrate that diseases of the central nervous system such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and schizophrenia protect against cancer. The most remarkable example is Alzheimer’s disease, which can reduce the risk of suffering from cancer by up to 50%. Various theories have been put forward in an attempt to explain this relationship between diseases that at a first glance seem to be so different from the pharmacological, genetic and environmental perspective. However, the...

Read more...

Cell Reports

A potential drug combination therapy to treat cancer

Madrid, 5 February, 2015

A large part of the effort dedicated to cancer research is directed towards the search for combinations of existing drugs—many of which have already been introduced into clinical practice—that permit higher overall survival rates and improvements in the quality of life of cancer patients.Marcos Malumbres, a researcher at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), and his team have discovered how etoposide — a drug widely used in the treatment of lung and testicular cancers, leukaemias...

Read more...

Journal of Cell Biology

A ‘molecular scaffolding’ that mantains skin structure and organisation

Madrid, 16 January, 2014

The human body is daily exposed to external assaults such as bacteria, ultraviolet light or chemical agents. Skin, the largest organ of the body, is the first line of defense against these agents. Skin performs this function thanks to the close connections established between its cells (e.g. adherens junctions). The loss of cell adhesion between these cells is related to inflammatory diseases and cancer, hence the special interest in this area of research over the past years.A study by the...

Read more...
Logo CNIO

Cell Metabolism

CNIO team turns tumour suppressor into anti-cancer target

Madrid, 7 January, 2014

Excessive alcohol consumption, as well as obesity leads to the accumulation of fat in the liver, a disease termed fatty liver disease (FLD) or steatosis. FLD is one of the most prevalent diseases in Western societies and affects about 30% of the adult population. Importantly, FLD increases the risk of liver failure, diabetes and cancer and no pharmacological therapies exist for this detrimental disease.The Genes, Development and Disease research team led by Erwin Wagner, head of the BBVA...

Read more...